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ON Nature Spring 2017
Magazines | Environment & Ecology 2017-03-14 10:31:09
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    Earth Watch toronto 7 ZO HELP ONTARIO'S FROGS AND TOADS! Submit your observations and receive a free Frog and Toad Calls of Ontario CD! Every report you submit helps to protect Ontario's amphibians 4ce" and the places they live. ,Carnivore caterpillar: Harvester butterfly larvae feed on aphids. Help keep tabs on a unique butterfly As butterfly season returns to Ontario, forest walkers are urged to keep an eye out for an extraordinary – and increasingly rare – species: the carnivorous harvester. While many butterflies have successfully adjusted to human activity, the harvester remains dependent on its woodland habitat, which development is increasingly diminishing. Of the more than 700 butterfly species recorded in North America, the harvester caterpillar is the only one that feasts on insects. The larvae of this small butterfly are active predators, particularly of woolly aphids. Along secluded woodland trails, harvesters may be encountered as they seek out damp, deciduous habitats where woolly aphids and their kin infest alder, beech and other trees and shrubs. The harvester is uncommonly curious about people. “It often finds you first,” says Peter Hall, co-author of The ROM Field Guide to Butterflies of Ontario, who says it is one of his favourite Ontario butterflies. “It often lands on my hand or camera when I try to take photos.” Harvesters are often observed darting erratically close to the ground along hiking trails or roadsides. They are hard to identify in flight, but when they settle they display their unique wing pattern, with its random circular shapes that make the butterflies seem out of focus. The harvester’s proboscis is very short – perfectly adapted for sopping up moisture suspended in damp sand or soil. While most butterflies feed on flowers, harvesters prefer aphid honeydew, sweat, urine and fluids from decomposing scat and carrion. The butterflies will often circle hikers, sampling the air with keen chemoreceptors and homing in on perspiration. They also imbibe spilled beer! Female harvesters lay their eggs near aphid colonies, where the hatchlings eat the aphids. The waxy white filaments the aphids exude stick to the caterpillars, creating a kind of camouflage suit. The mature caterpillar secures itself to a branch or other surfaces with a silken girdle and pupates. The newly formed chrysalis, shaped like a monkey’s head, mimics a bird dropping, making it virtually invisible to hungry birds. People can help monitor harvester populations by participating in local butterfly counts and BioBlitzes. Jay Cossey, nature photojournalist and author of Southern Ontario Butterflies and their Natural History. Submit your Gray treefrog observations on-line at www.torontozoo.com/ adoptapond/ frogwatchontario.asp. Contact Adopt-A-Pond by email at aap@torontozoo.ca or by mail at 361A Old Finch Ave.Toronto, ON M1B 5K7. II' Ontario Dzniarodnament Enavniarrement c Whiskeyjack Nature Tours SOUTHERN UTAH & DEATH VALLEY 20 April -1 May 2017 (12 days) $3150 (dbl occup) from Las Vegas The mighty Colorado River, aided by the arid erosion cycle, has waged battle across the eons with the sandstone strata and fashioned landscapes so unique that they are more redolent of an extra-terrestrial origin. We visit Bryce Canyon, Antelope Canyon, Valley of the Gods, Arches NP, Canyonlands NP, Monument Valley, Zion Canyon, Death Valley and more. 111- Prairies in Springtime South-west Saskatchewan & South Alberta 18 - 28 May, 2017 (11 days) $2590+GST (dbl occup) from Calgary The prairie ecosystem of south-west Saskatchewan and southern Alberta is wondrously green in the springtime as the natural grasslands ripple in the wind. The land is punctuated with wetlands teeming with birds. We visit iconic Canadian landscapes such as Grasslands National Park, Cypress Hills & cultural sites such as Head-Smashed-in-Buffalo Jump & the Royal Tyrell Museum in Drumheller. WHISKEYJACK NATURE TOURS BOX 319, SECHELT, BC, VON 3A0 604-885-5539 E-m tony@whiskeyjacknaturetours.com Web: www.whiskeyjacknaturetours.com ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM SPRING 2017 ON NATURE 11

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    Earth Watch Western painted turtle This article is the sixth in a series focusing on common species whose numbers are in decline. These species are neither rare nor endangered, but serve as reminders that familiar species cannot be taken for granted – a lesson people should have learned when the passenger pigeon became extinct in 1914. Seven of the eight turtle species found in Ontario are classified as species at risk. The painted turtle is the only one to escape that designation – so far. But while the species is abundant in the province today, its numbers are dropping across Canada, and there are reasons to fear the same fate for Ontario populations. The latest report from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assessed three western painted turtle populations across the nation and determined that two are threatened and of special concern, largely due to the loss of their wetland habitat. Such habitats are under growing pressure in Ontario as well. Between 2000 and 2011, development, road construction and drainage destroyed more than 6,000 hectares of wetlands in southern Ontario alone. KEEP COMMON SPECIES COMMON Researchers have already observed declines in western painted turtle numbers in the province, and it may be only a matter of time before those declines reach dangerous levels. The western painted turtle can easily be mistaken for its close relative, the midland painted turtle. All painted turtles have an olive to black carapace with red or dark orange markings on the marginal scutes (enlarged scales on the outer edge of the shell). They all also have yellow stripes on the head and neck. However, the western painted turtle is larger than the midland, has a much bigger butterfly marking on its lower shell and, within the province, is exclusively found in northwestern Ontario. Habitat loss is not the only threat to western painted turtles; car traffic, poaching and climate change also threaten the species’ survival. The public can help monitor the turtle population by submitting sightings of western painted turtles to the Ontario Reptile and Amphibian Atlas Program (ontarionature. org/atlas). Driving carefully in turtle country and advocating for the preservation of wetlands can also help ensure that these creatures remain a common feature of Ontario’s landscape. –Jaklynn Nimec ,In decline: Western painted turtles are threatened by habitat loss, road mortality and poaching. PHOTO SEAN MCCREADY CC BY-ND 2.0 12 ON NATURE SPRING 2017 ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM

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    For the birds Collisions with reflective windows injure or kill up to 10 percent of North America’s bird population each year. Window treatments can effectively deter bird strikes. To prevent such collisions and educate the public, the University of Guelph Arboretum, with the assistance of Nature Guelph, recently installed treatments on 10 large plate-glass windows where fatal bird collisions have occurred. The inspiration for the initiative came from a talk given by Paloma Plant, project coordinator for the Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP), a non-profit organization that works to safeguard migratory birds. She challenged Nature Guelph to do something about the periodic bird strikes on the arboretum windows. Soon after, club members met with FLAP and arboretum staff to identify windows most hazardous to flying birds. Chris Earley, an interpretive biologist at the arboretum, reported witnessing at least 10 species of birds collide with the windows. The challenge was to find a solution that would deter birds without detracting from the building’s appearance. The team settled on Feather Friendly, an adhesive material applied on the exterior surface of windows. The outside surfaces of the arboretum windows now feature dots that birds can see. These markings interfere with the reflection that can make the windows look like safe greenery to birds. “We are thrilled with the windows,” says Shelley Hunt, the arboretum’s director, “and have had nothing but positive feedback from visitors.” To fund the project, the club obtained grants from the Gosling Foundation and TD Friends of the Environment. Members also made donations. The team’s goal was not just to birdproof the arboretum windows but to create a demonstration site where Guelph residents can learn about methods for preventing bird strikes. “So many people have witnessed window bird strikes and don’t know what to do about it,” says Nature Guelph president Jenn Bock. “Now we have a place where the 75,000 annual visitors to the arboretum can find an answer and help spread the word.” –John Prescott Tree PlanTing? FUNDING SUPPORT IS AVAILABLE Paid for, in part, by the Government of Ontario Hike Pukaskwa Park’s Coastal Trail Sea kayak with Slate Island’s Caribou Agawa • 1.800.203.9092 naturallysuperior.com rockislandlodge.ca Wawa • • Marathon • Rossport Red Rock • Thunder Bay • F If you are planting trees on your property, you may be eligible for funding assistance. Planting trees on your property helps fight climate change and increases wildlife habitat and water conservation. Forests Ontario is working with its tree planting partners across the province to deliver the Ontario government’s 50 Million Tree Program. If you have at least 2.5 acres of productive land, you could qualify. Call or visit us at: Forests Ontario 416.646.1193 www.forestsontario.ca/50mtp 4 , FORESTS ONTARIO Paddle Lake Superior by Voyageur Canoe Agawa Bay to Thunder Bay 6 sections, paddling minstrels, iconic Canadian hosts & more! July & August 2017 Limited space available. Call to reserve your spot today! 1.800.203.9092 | naturallysuperior.com Ontario CELEBRATE CANADA’S 150 TH • Silver Islet ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM SPRING 2017 ON NATURE 13

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    Earth Watch Please help Ontario's turtles! Join Ontario Turtle Tally Seven of Ontario's eight turtle species are at risk of becoming extinct. Every turtle sighting you report helps us protect Ontario's turtles and the places they live. Submit your observations on-line at www.torontozoo.com/adoptapond /turtletally.asp . Contact Adopt-A-Pond by email at aap@torontozoo.ca or by mail at 361A Old Finch Ave., Toronto, ON M1B 5K7. frft- Ontario I 4, %vniarodnament %vniarozement ,Growing stronger: ALUS Canada is expanding across Ontario. Advertise with ONnature ALUS offers new way to fund habitat preservation Anew program introduced late last year expands the funding options for projects created by the Alternative Land Use Services (ALUS) initiative. The New Acre Project, launched in November at the Royal Winter Fair in Toronto, will enable the public and businesses to financially support ALUS’s work. The organization – which last year formally changed its name to ALUS Canada, A Weston Family Initiative (ALUS Canada) – works with farmers to convert marginal farmland into wildlife habitat. Since 2008, the program has helped transform more than 7,000 hectares of marginal agricultural land into tallgrass prairie, wetland and other ecosystems. ALUS Canada compensates farmers for managing and maintaining ALUS projects established on their land. “The New Acre Project is the first of its kind in North America,” says Bryan Gilvesy, CEO of ALUS Canada. “It will empower ordinary Canadians who can now sponsor projects that help create cleaner air, cleaner water and more biodiversity.” With its expansion into Quebec last year (in partnership with the province’s farmers union, Union des producteurs agricoles), ALUS Canada is now active in six provinces, and more than 72 farm families participate nationwide. In Ontario, 2016 was a busy year for the organization. In partnership with Ontario Nature, it launched a new pilot program in Lambton County and expanded in a number of other counties. ALUS Canada’s goal is to be active in nine Ontario communities by 2018, and with support from the Ontario Trillium Foundation it plans to add programs in Peterborough, Caledon Township, Huron County and Chatham-Kent. ALUS’s unique approach to habitat stewardship focuses on working with communities and farmers to identify and implement the best ways to protect nature on agricultural lands. Local advisory committees made up primarily of farmers evaluate and tailor all potential ALUS projects to ensure that they address local environmental priorities. The ALUS Canada website (ALUS.ca) provides more information about the organization and its New Acre Project. –Joshua Wise PHOTOS (TOP LEFT) JOSHUA WISE; (TOP RIGHT) KEVIN KONNYU 14 ON NATURE SPRING 2017 ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM

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    Pollinator campaign targets schools When Ontario Nature received funding last year from MEC and the Ontario Trillium Foundation to launch a new phase of its campaign to protect pollinators, the Youth Council sprang into action. Over a weekend in November, 23 members of the council met to learn about the latest issues affecting pollinator species and develop an action plan for the second half of the school year. The new campaign will focus on working with municipalities and schools to adopt pollinator-friendly practices and policies. The Youth Council, a network of more than 90 young leaders aged 14 to 20, has teamed up with Bee City Canada, a new organization that asks city councils and elementary and postsecondary schools to adopt “pollinator declarations” that commit to promoting healthy, sustainable habitats and communities for bees and other pollinators. Toronto became the first Canadian Bee City in the spring of 2016, and the Youth Council is looking to expand this initiative to other communities. In the coming months, council members will reach out to municipal councils and school officials to begin the declaration process. They plan to approach at least 10 municipalities, asking them to develop Municipal Pollinator Habitat Plans with a focus on native, pesticide-free, pollinator-friendly plants; host an annual pollinator celebration in the community; and publicly acknowledge their commitment to the issue through signage and a website. The Youth ,Spreading the word: Youth Council has partnered with Bee City Canada. Council will work with high schools and universities to develop similar plans, as well as help them create pollinator habitats. Additionally, in May and June, in partnership with local groups, the council will host a series of planting events across Ontario focused on pollinator-friendly plants. They will also be educating youth and community groups through workshops and presentations. “By getting kids interested in pollinators early, we can build a greater awareness and create a better understanding of problems surrounding pollinators,” says Spencer McGregor, a Youth Council member attending the University of Guelph. To learn more about the Youth Council’s pollinator campaign and how you can take action, visit Ontario Nature’s pollinator website at ontarionature.org/pollinators. –Sarah Hedges Reconnect with your nature. Beautiful trails. Wine country. Tranquility. It seems the birds aren’t the only ones who find their haven on Pelee Island. Take the Pelee Islander or Jiimaan ferry over and see for yourself why so many migrate here year after year. OntarioFerries.com | 1.800.661.2220

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    Become aMonthly Donor A k i 44 k + Friends of Nature monthly donors provide reliable funding for Ontario Nature’s important conservation work Sign up today by calling Portia, member relations coordinator 1-800-440-2366 x. 233 i EL - A ontarionature.org /friends Earth Watch Indigenous communities grapple with offsets Since 2010, Bkejwanong First Nation, also known as the Walpole Island First Nation, has received several invitations from developers to provide conservation offsets to compensate for the adverse ecological impact of their development projects. The community has agreed to participate in some conservation offsets, such as restoring wetlands and grasslands on Bkejwanong land to offset loss of such habitats elsewhere in Ontario, but has turned down others. The choice is never easy because compensating for damage is not always possible. “We can’t just recreate something that was there for millennia,” says Clint Jacobs, president of the Walpole Island Land Trust. The Bkejwanong experience with conservation offsetting is presented in a new research report titled Indigenous Perspectives on Conservation Offsetting: Five Case Studies from Ontario, Canada (ontarionature.org). Published jointly by Ontario Nature, Plenty Canada, an Indigenous non-profit, and the Indigenous Environmental Studies and Sciences Program at Trent University, the report explores both the challenges and benefits Indigenous communities have discovered in their efforts to engage in conservation offsetting. The practice (also known as biodiversity offsetting) is a promising yet risky trade-off. It involves accepting harm to a species or ecosystem on the condition that actions are taken to offset elsewhere any losses to biodiversity or affected communities. In deciding whether or how to participate, Indigenous communities must consider many factors, such as access to food and traditional medicines, maintenance and renewal of cultural practices, the protection of sacred sites, and fundamental responsibilities for maintaining the web of life. The report highlights many potential benefits of offsetting, ranging from wildlife habitat improvements to funding that can be used for conservation initiatives. It can also help raise awareness about Indigenous rights, responsibilities and interests. As Jacobs explains, “the offset sites are available to the community for beneficial uses, such as gathering berries and medicines, hunting, fishing, spiritual connectivity and educational outings.” But the report also demonstrates significant impediments to the success of conservation offsetting. Indigenous communities struggle with decision-making frameworks that fail to integrate Traditional Knowledge and follow inflexible timelines and procedures that prevent adequate consultation with community members and consensus building. “A solution has to belong to all of us,” explains biologist and artist Rick Beaver of Alderville First Nation. “Our intent has to be aligned.” The report, produced with the generous support of MEC, will be of interest to everyone who is sincere about working cross-culturally to protect nature, says Larry McDermott, executive director of Plenty Canada and the report’s lead researcher. “If understood within the process of reconciliation between mainstream Canadian society and Indigenous peoples, offsetting may offer opportunities to restore healthier relationships with each other, and with all life.” –Anne Bell ,Conservation offsets: A new report highlights Indigenous perspectives. PHOTOS (BOTTOM LEFT) JANE M. BOWLES; (RIGHT) GORDON ROBERTSON 16 ON NATURE SPRING 2017 ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM

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    Google “Don Scallen In the Hills” for insightful stories on wild food foraging, our dying trees, animal camouflage and many others. Explore Newfoundland and Labrador with the locals. View whales, icebergs, puffins, fjords, and fishing communities on gentle escorted tours. Explore three UNESCO sites. Comfortable hotels. Wildland Tours www.wildlands.com Toll-Free 1-888-615-8279 Bird, Nature, Cultural Tours Flora & Fauna Field Tours 1093 Scollard Dr., Peterborough, ON K9H 0A9 Tel: 705-874-8531 Join these fabulous birding tours in 2017: Central Vietnam: Mar. 1-17, 2017 US $2895; Taiwan: Apr. 1-10, 2017 US $2855; Seychelles: July 9-19, 2017, US $4125; Papua New Guinea: Sept. 2-12, US $5320; Northern Queensland: Sept.13-20, US $3365; Southern Queensland: Sept.21-26, US $1455; Sri Lanka: Nov. 24-Dec. 7, US $2360 Website: www.florafaunafieldtours.com Email: flora_fauna_tours@hotmail.com Naturalist Shop OrangeDog Native Plants. www.orangedognativeplants.com AQUATIC/WETLAND WOODY HERBACEOUS. Contract Growing Forestville/Toronto, ON Yellow lady’s-slipper orchid Gordon Robertson is a member of the Ottawa Field Naturalists’ Club and a prolific nature photographer. Cottage for Rent! Haliburton Highlands. All-season cedar 3 bedroom Viceroy home. On a hill in 3-acres of forest, with wildlife, wild plants and two docks on the lake and river. Good fishing, canoe, kayak. Available June to October $1200 per week. More information and photos at www.pinehillcottage.ca. Contact fibresnorth@gmail.com. ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM SPRING 2017 ON NATURE 17

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    ,Ecotourism: The Bruce Trail attracts more than 400,000 visitors each year. PHOTO NAME 18 ON NATURE SPRING 2017 ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM

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    ON THE TRAIL OF ADVENTURE Hiking the extensive Bruce Trail can be a month-long feat of endurance or a leisurely piecemeal exploration. A few people who trekked the entire trail describe their most memorable experiences and offer advice for novices. By Conor Mihell It is the longest and oldest marked footpath in Canada, tracing the 893-kilometre-long spine of a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve. The Bruce Trail provides habitat for more than 350 species of birds, more than 40 types of orchids and 109 endangered or threatened creatures. Located on the doorstep of this country’s largest metropolitan area, the trail attracts more than 400,000 visitors annually. Perhaps because of these characteristics, the Bruce Trail is a model of conservation success. Back in 1960, during a meeting of the Federation of Ontario Naturalists (now Ontario Nature), Hamilton-based naturalist Raymond Lowes and his friend, the legendary artist Robert Bateman, conceived the notion of a trail running the length of the Niagara Escarpment. The idea caught on. In time for Canada’s centennial, volunteers had secured permission from escarpment landowners for a footpath stretching from the Niagara River to a commemorative cairn at Tobermory, on the tip of the Bruce Peninsula. The group became known as the Bruce Trail Conservancy (BTC). Joshua Wise, Ontario Nature’s Greenway Program manager, says the provincial government’s 1985 Niagara Escarpment Plan, which establishes land-use guidelines for the nearly 200,000-hectare landform, sets a strong precedent for conservation. “Keeping this natural corridor intact is essential to connecting habitat and allowing species to respond to climate change,” he says. In 1990, UNESCO recognized the escarpment as a template for sustainable development. Aside from its conservation value, the Bruce Trail is a vital gateway to nature for thousands of Canadians. “Exploring the Bruce Trail gives people a greater understanding of the escarpment’s fragility and our need to protect its irreplaceable ecological systems,” says Marsha Russell, the director of communications and fund development for the BTC, which today has 9,000 members and 1,450 volunteers. Over the decades, hikers of all ages and skill levels have been drawn to the trail. The ultimate achievement is to hike its entire length – earning an End-to-End badge from the BTC. Here, End-to-Enders from all walks of life offer their reflections on travelling this diverse landscape. ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM SPRING 2017 ON NATURE 19

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    owen bjorgan, 24 Niagara-on-the-Lake In 2014, Bjorgan celebrated the completion of his second year at university with an end-to-end hike of the Bruce Trail. “The Niagara portion has been my backyard all my life,” says Bjorgan, who graduated last year with a degree in biodiversity. “I started in Tobermory and hiked home.” Bjorgan’s five-week journey raised $27,000 for two Niagara-area non-profits that introduce youth to the outdoors. Highlight: “Spending 37 days outdoors, that was the biggest highlight for me. I saw the transition from spring to summer and observed things I would never see in a laboratory. Hiking the Bruce Trail, you travel through 10 different parts of the world in one day. One moment you’re in a cool, damp cedar forest; the next you’re in a prairie savannah. Then a marsh, then a forest swamp, then [on] a humongous cliff overlooking farm fields. The diversity is overwhelming.” Lowlight: “The first week whooped me! Four days of rain and strong winds. I got to Lion’s Head and had to take a rest day – I was hypothermic. But in the end, this challenge is one of my best memories of the trail.” Favourite spot: “I went four days on the Bruce Peninsula without seeing another person. I couldn’t believe I was still in southern Ontario. It felt like I’d entered an immense wilderness.” Advice for newbies: “Train before you hit the trail. Get out and do some walking, ideally wearing your hiking boots and carrying a pack. But once you’re out there, no matter how fit you are, it’s 90 percent mental, 10 percent physical. Sometimes you have to embrace hardship and push on.” soheil fahimy, 48 Toronto When he immigrated to Ontario from Iran 10 years ago, Fahimy was thrilled to discover a long-distance hiking trail so close to home. “I was like, ‘You can hike from Niagara to Tobermory? With no fee!’” he recalls. “I had to hike the whole trail.” Fahimy and his Shetland sheepdog, Delta, finished their second end-to-end trip last spring. ,Crane cacophony: A crane startled one hiker. Highlight: “I stopped at a small creek in Waterdown [near Hamilton] to watch trout rising for flies. It was such a tiny stream, but there were so many fish! I flashed back to my life in Iran, where most of our trout streams have been destroyed. I had this same type of experience at many waterways on the Bruce. Everywhere I looked, fish were thriving.” Notable nature encounter: “I heard a noise early one morning. It sounded like an ape! It scared my dog. I thought, if he’s scared, I should be scared, too. Turned out it was a sandhill crane. I had never encountered one before.” Favourite spot: “For me it’s Niagara, the southernmost section. The trail passes through the backyards of estate mansions and there’s no one around. There’s no hunting, no active farming, and surprisingly you are all alone.” Advice for newbies: Mind the weather. “My first endto-end hike was in July 2011. It was the hottest month in Canadian history. There was no rain (except for a couple of early morning drizzles) for 40 days and I struggled with the heat. When I did it again, I went in May to avoid the hot weather and bugs.” mark whitcombe, 66 Orangeville A 45-day, end-to-end hike on the Bruce Trail in 2016 was Whitcombe’s gift to himself. “The Bruce Trail is my backyard,” says the retired outdoor educator, current president of the Upper Credit Field Naturalists Club and amateur botanist who made a new friend in Soheil Fahimy (above) early in his hike. “What better way to immerse myself than to trace the progression of spring from south to north on the trail? I hiked day after day, a lovely strolling pace.” Notable nature encounter: “On the southern part of the trail, it’s hard to believe that a century ago there would have been no trees [due to clear-cut logging]. To see the forest come back reveals the resilience of the natural world. Something I had read about in John Riley’s book, The Once and Future Great Lakes Country. That was comforting for me.” Favourite spot: “I loved the west side of the Beaver Valley. It was wet the morning we were there and with all the springs on that side of the valley, the foliage was gleaming.” Advice for newbies: “Don’t pack for your fears. All that does is weigh you down. The biggest thing I learned is how PHOTOS (TOP RIGHT) RYAN AND SARAH DUNCAN; (BOTTOM RIGHT ) MARK WHITCOMBE; (MIDDLE) ROBERTMCCAW.COM; (PREVIOUS SPREAD) WILLY WATERTON 20 ON NATURE SPRING 2017 ONNATUREMAGAZINE.COM

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